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Two “mystery forts” tied to Québec’s role in founding Alberta and Western Canada (#330)

(Click any image below to enlarge)

Prior to Britain’s control over all of what was to become British Canada (in the run up to confederation and independence), much of what was New France was governed by administrators based in Québec City and Montréal.

It is well known that the reach of New France extended from Labrador in the North, to New Orleans in the South.

But surprisingly, today, what were the “westernmost” reaches of New France rarely receive attention in the media or elsewhere outside of the Prairies (especially in Québec itself).  It is a history which is better known to students from Western Canada than to those elsewhere (much of this history is mandatory learning material for high school students in the Prairie provinces).

When I first moved to Eastern Canada way back when, I was surprised (even shocked) to learn that very few people in Eastern Canada knew anything about the pre-British, pre-1763 New France influence throughout Manitoba, into the heart of Saskatchewan, and even into Alberta.

Coming from Alberta and having lived in all four Western Provinces, at the time I simply took it for granted that was a part of history which everyone everywhere knew about.

Funny how it is “Louisiana” which primarily manages to disproportionately steal everyone else’s thunder garner so much attention when it comes to talking about the “far-reaches” of New France and subsequent turns-of-events… but whatever… damned Cajuns, Zachary Richard & Louisiana!!!  I suppose Louisiana is cool too 🙂

As an aside, I believe it was from the New France era that the word “Soyeu” became part of Prairie French in Western Canada, and particularly Albertan/Saskatchewan French.   It’s an old word from Old Picard and old Wallon French which literally means to saw something in half… ie: “Wednesday” (which saws the week in half).

In Québec and Ontario, the closest might be the French expression “nombil de la semaine”, but “soyeu” is more of a direct translation for “Wednesday” than it is an expression.

When I moved to Québec at the beginning of the 2000s, I told a friend that I would call her on “Soyeu”.  It was only when I saw the look her face that I realized that nobody outside of Western Canada knew what “soyeu” meant… Lundi, mardi, “soyeu“, jeudi, vendredi, samedi, dimanche — NOPE… just blank stares in both Québec and Ontario.  

Nowdays, young Francophones in Alberta  generally just say mercredi.  However it is still interesting to know that there continues to be somewhat of a direct New France influence on Prairie French.


Prairies 6

At least two French forts (and possibly two others) were built in Saskatchewan in the 1750s.

(The HBC established their own “Fort Espérance” after the British hand-over, but it is speculated that a New France fort existed at the same site in Saskatchewan much earlier)


At least one French fort (Fort la Biche) and possibly one other (Fort la Jonquière) were built in Alberta in the 1750s.

After the change of administration from New France to British North America, many of the forts in Western Canada continued to be administered by Francophone-ran trading companies, mostly as trading outposts (with an administration based in Montréal).

Others were converted to new regime military installations.

Yet others were abandoned.

Some have been restored and exist as museums today.


(ABOVE:  Restored Ft. Rouge)


(ABOVE:  Restored Fort Bas de la Rivière) 

Some New France-era forts have since become major urban centres or modern-day communities.  For example:

  • Fort Rouge became Winnipeg,
  • Fort Dauphin became Dauphin (MB),
  • Fort la Reine became Portage La Prairie (MB).

Of those forts which were abandoned, their locations are generally known, and markers have been placed where they once stood (such as the case for Fort Bourbon II, Fort à La Corne, or Fort Maurepas II).   Yet many (perhaps most) have not undergone archaeological excavation (a fact which completely baffles me – but which could mean that many new and exciting discoveries are yet to come).

Of all the New France-era forts, the location of Fort à La Corne (in Saskatchewan) is the westernmost confirmed location.   It was also the first place grain was grown in Western Canada.  Its exact location was on an unstable sandy spit of land on the banks of the confluence of the North and South Saskatchewan Rivers.   The spit of land was presumably washed away generations ago, and the earthen cliffs above the land began to fall into the river in 2009.  The road and the trails leading to the exact location have now been closed.


For all you Google Streetview enthusiasts, you can view the viewpoint above the site by clicking here:  https://www.google.ca/maps/@53.233378,-105.086365,3a,66.8y,44.32h,86.78t/data=!3m4!1e1!3m2!1sIubHklZaehf7EkWsfM19wg!2e0?hl=en

Fort La Biche and Fort la Jonquière

Yet there were two forts further West of Fort à La Corne, and their locations remain mysteries.  I find it surprising that the fate, location, and historic roles of these two westernmost forts do continue to remain a major mystery.

Fort La Biche on the “La Biche River” in Alberta (the “Red Deer River” in English) was established at an unknown location.   Many speculate it was actually established on or near the actual site of Red Deer Alberta, but I have not seen any proof that Red Deer was the actual location.  The internet is almost silent on the issue (offering no proof of location).

The location of Fort La Jonquière also remains a mystery, but one with a potentially more exciting story, and perhaps a much more significant role in history.

There are four suspected locations for Fort La Jonquière:

  1. Prince Albert, Saskatchewan,
  2. Edmonton, Alberta
  3. Calgary, Alberta (within view of the Rocky Mountains)
  4. There is a 4th possibility that it could have also been built in the Foothills of the Rocky Mountains, meaning that the men of Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de La Vérendrye would have been the first Europeans to have seen and possibly set foot in the Rocky Mountains.

With the exception of Fort La Biche (Alberta), Fort La Jonquière could have been the westernmost post of the French Empire.

Furthermore, if it was located at Edmonton or Calgary, it would have begun a trading tradition with the local aboriginals which possibly could have given rise to later decisions by British explorers and trading companies to establish more modern forts at the same locations (such as Fort Edmonton, which has since become the major Canadian city of Edmonton and the capital of Alberta).

In fact, some have speculated that Fort La Jonquière could have possibly been on or near the site of actual Fort Edmonton (now the site of the Alberta legislature – the seat of Alberta’s provincial government).


(ABOVE:  A photo between 1905 and 1912 in Edmonton, with the Alberta provincial legislative (government) building in the background, and Fort Edmonton in the foreground — possibly the original site of Fort La Jonquière).

Considering the impact these Québec-administered forts have had in founding Western Canada, I find it amazing that the story, locations, and relevance of two of the most historically significant forts (Fort La Biche and Fort Jonquière) remain a mystery to this day – especially if they were instigating factors in spurring trade, which subsequently lead to later decisions to found Edmonton or Calgary.


Some info for additional reading:  following the change of administration from New France to British North America, the Hudson’s Bay Company became the de facto government of what was Western and Northern Canada.   It quickly established dozens and dozens of subsequent forts across the land.  Yet many (perhaps most) continued to be Francophone-administered (despite being under British control).

This was a major reason why French continued to be Western Canada’s primary language until the last half of the 1800s (and even into the 20th century in many communities — a legacy of much of Western Canada’s current French regions).

Here is a link for the HBC forts:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Hudson%27s_Bay_Company_trading_posts

Here is the only open-source map I could find of the HBC forts (although it’s not very good):

HBC forts



If Fort La Jonquière does turn out to be the original foundations of Edmonton… why couldn’t they have found some place warmer, like Florida, or Singapore !?!?!

But at least there’s no or little humidity in the Western part of the Prairies.  I’ve never found the winters there much colder than Toronto, Ottawa, Montréal or Québec City (where it is quite humid).  -25 degrees Celsius with no humidity in the Prairies = -10 degrees in Toronto / Montréal with humidity.

Anyway, we can see the New France heritage to this day in the Prairies.  For example, there are those in Edmonton who still keep those ‘ole Prairie Voyageur traditions alive and well (Alberta through-and-through)…

And also in Winnipeg

You’ll even find French advertising in the Prairies if you look for it (here is an example)…

But fancy new trains don’t mean that it’s all urban-urban.

Here’s the part of the West’s traditions which I can identify with from my own youth — and it started in no small part with the legacy of our New France heritage back in the 1700s…

Even in the most conservative and Anglophone regions of Canada (such as inAlberta’s deep rural South, in the small town of Brooks), we continue to see the legacy of New France’s Prairie.  Almost 300 years later, it continues to make in-roads at all levels of government.

These are points of pride for people on the Prairies (both Anglophones and Francophones) — otherwise we wouldn’t be seeing such gestures such as the one you’re about to see at City Hall in Brooks.

Les gens des Prairies; toujours sur le go (#127)

Part of the last post would be a good to write separately in French (the bit about Prairie Canadians glued to their cars and travelling huge distances all the time).  I say this because there is a very different outlook on driving, and in this sense, in lifestyle between the Prairie provinces and Québec (and Eastern Canada in general).   Although most people have cars in Québec, they don’t drive them nearly as much or as far as people in the Prairies (perhaps with the exception of going to Florida in the winter), or nearly the same distances between towns and cities (people are more used to travelling around the local area).

Dans mon billet précédent, je mentionnais aux lecteurs anglophones que les gens des Prairies (l’Alberta, le Saskatchewan et le Manitoba) s’en servent souvent de leurs voitures pour parcourir de très grandes distances — en moyen bien plus grandes que les gens du Québec (et l’est du pays en général)…  au point où plusieurs personnes de l’Ontario et le Québec m’ont dit même que c’est typiquement prairien que je conduis ma voiture autant.

Pour nous qui sommes d’origine des prairies, de conduire 100, 200 ou même 300 kms ne serait considéré pas plus d’inconvenance de ce que serait 20 kms pour quelqu’un qui habite une grande ville comme Montréal, Vancouver ou Toronto.   En raison de l’immensité des prairies et le fait que tout le monde a de la famille et des amis éparpillés sur une si vaste territoire, d’être sans voiture donnerait le même sentiment que de perdre un membre (selon toute probabilité, un sentiment semblable pour ceux qui perdent leur portable ou pour d’autres qui perdent leur accès internet).

Il n’y a rien d’étrange de trouver des gens qui se contentent de conduire deux heures entre deux villes pour un rendez-vous chez le dentiste.  Je connais même des gens, qui chaque jour, conduit plus qu’une heure dans les deux directions, en pleine campagne, pour se rendre au travail.

Pour moi personnellement, en raison de mes racines culturelles et ce sentiment qu’une voiture équivaut un style de vie de liberté, la question se posait de savoir si je devrais se procurer une voiture quand je suis parti vivre à l’étranger, et si oui, jusqu’à quel point devrais-je me retenir conduire.  En fin de compte, je me suis dit du diable, quelle différence ferait-il, et pourquoi pas?  Si j’allais conduire à l’étranger, je devrais rester fidèle en fonction du moule culturel dans lequel j’ai grandi, et pour ainsi dire je ferais aussi bien de m’en servir d’une voiture pour voir autant de places que possible, et dans la mesure du possible en profiter pour élargir mes propres horizons au max, mur à mur.

Alors, lorsque j’habitais la Chine et le Liban pendant de nombreuses années, j’ai pris la peine d’avoir ma propre voiture en tout temps (il va sans dire que je me sentirais « étrange » d’en être dépourvu).  Même quand je travaillais en Afrique et en Inde, je louais des voitures d’occasion pour explorer tous les coins et recoins du pays et ceux qui l’avoisinent.   Je suis même allé jusqu’au point de faire « importer » ma propre voiture du Canada en Chine au début des années 2000 – la faisant amener en Chine dans un conteneur transocéanique.   Mes collègues et mes amis du Québec et de l’est du Canada ont tous cru que j’avais perdu la tête, mais ceux de l’ouest du Canada ont bien saisi mon raisonnement et ma sensibilité envers mon désir d’avoir toujours à ma disposition mes quatre roues à moi.   Dans les prairies, on est né ainsi!

Mes voitures ont vu tant de places, et elles ont accumulées tellement de kilomètres, que même moi, je suis quelque peu étonné lorsque je me mets à y penser.  J’ai fait tellement de grands voyages parmi lesquels j’ai conduis :

  • d’Islamabad (Pakistan) jusqu’à Beijing (Chine
  • d’Istanbul (Turquie) jusqu’en Arabie Saoudite et d’ailleurs,
  • un peu partout en Afrique de l’ouest
  • en Inde et un peu partout dans les pays avoisinants,
  • dans les Causasses, de l’Arménie en Géorgie au Azerbaïdjan
  • hors-route à travers le désert en Mongolie en Jeep, vivant dans les tentes des nomades là où j’en pouvais trouver,
  • dans pas mal d’autres régions et lieux

Mais, au bout du compte, je crois que je n’aurais jamais ressenti le besoin de repousser les limites routières si je n’aurais pas grandi dans les Prairies – où il existe justement ce sentiment « inné » de conduire hors aggolmération…  un « faites-le » sentiment.   Comme Prairien… la conduite, c’est dans notre sang.

Souvent, mais pas toujours, d’autres gens m’accompagnaient lors de ces aventures.

J’étais chanceux que mon meilleur ami (celui dont j’ai parlé dans le billet precedent), a pris l’avion pour m’accompagner sur quelques-uns de ces voyages, tel un voyage de 3000kms à travers la Chine (à la recherche de villages, de forts, et de temples d’antiquité – parmi lesquels beaucoup n’auraient jamais été visité auparavant par des étrangers).   On a fait ensemble le Kazakhstan, Kirghizistan, Tadjikistan, et l’Ouzbékistan en voiture.  Et cela ne compte même pas les innombrables voyages routiers que nous avons entrepris ensemble au Canada.  C’est une des meilleurs indices qui peut être compté comme meilleur ami – et ces voyages faisaient pour les meilleurs mémoires au monde (littéralement).

Alors, au Québec, la prochaine fois que vous voyez une voiture de passage sur la 20 ou la 40 munie de plaques de l’ouest, il est fort probable que la personne au volant ne considérerait son voyage transcanadien de 32 à 42 heures que « petit escapade » – car ce serait un voyage qui correspondrait plutôt à “sa nature” 🙂 .

Quelques photos de mes aventures mentionnées ci-dessus sont affichées dans le billet « “Ragoût de boulettes” & other cross-cultural tid-bits (#126) »